Types of Anarchism

Types of Anarchism

Anarcho-syndicalism

An anarchist wing in the labour union which main purpose is to abolish the wage system. The basic principles of Anarcho-syndicalism include worker’s solidarity, direct-action and self-management.

Anarcho-primitivism

An anarchist analysis of the origins and progress of civilization. Primitivists argue that the shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistence gave rise to social stratification, coercion, and alienation. They advocate a return to non-“civilized” ways of life through deindustrialisation, abolition of division of labour or specialization, and abandonment of technology.

Insurrectionary anarchism

Insurrectionary anarchists are critical of formal labour unions and federations, and instead advocate informal organization, such as small affinity groups, carrying out acts of resistance in various struggles and mass organizations called base structures, which can include exploited individuals who are not anarchists. They do not believe that the state will not just merely wither away, thus anarchists must attack since waiting is defeat and they also believe that there needs to be an open uprising spread amongst the exploited and excluded. Wolfi Landstreicher wrote the basic points of this type of anarchism in which he states that it is not an ideological solution to all social problems, but it is an on-going analysis, discussion and practice aimed at ending the domination of the state and the continuance of capitalism. Insurrectionary anarchists are generally interested in class struggle, but many consider themselves to be primitivists or green anarchists as well.

Christian anarchism

These anarchists believe that there is only one source of authority to which they must answer to, the word of God. They believe that man-made authority, such as government, even the established church, do not and should not have power over them. Most Christian anarchists are pacifists and oppose the use of physical force, both proactive and reactive. They believe that individuals who seek a path to freedom should have compassion for others while turning the other cheek when confronted by violence.

Collectivist anarchism

This is an anarchist doctrine that advocated the abolition of the state and private ownership of the means of production. Thus the means of production would be owned collectively and controlled and managed by the producers themselves. Workers would be compensated for their work on the basis of the amount of time they contributed to production, rather than “to each according to his need” as in anarcho-communism.

Individualist anarchism 

This type includes a variety of different anarchism which focuses on the importance of the individual and the individuals sovereignty within their own life.

Anarcho-communism

Also known as Libertarian Communism, Anarcho-communists have principles in which they consider the collective property of the products of labour necessary. They also advocate the abolition of money, replacing it with the idea of the gift economy to facilitate the exchange of goods. Profit no longer exists within this type of anarchist ideology and goods are given away as gifts in the certainty that others will also give back. They also advocate the abolition of wage slavery and recommend worker self-management to improve working conditions, increase efficiency and make working enjoyable.

Green anarchism

Green anarchism advocates a deep questioning of the reality humans have been given, and wish to see those questions be put into effective practice, by creating new communities that exist without these institutions of domination while at the same time resisting the current ones in place. These anarchists tend to dispute two main points: civilization and technology.

Technological anarchism

There are some anarchists who see information technology as the way to replace hierarchy, defeat monopoly and prevent war, and they support culture jamming in particular as a way to do so. Also, it has been argued that the Free Software movement is an example of an anarchist organization, non-hierarchical and a voluntary association for the production of good.

Crypto-anarchism

Crypto-anarchism is an online philosophy that illustrates the use of strong public key cryptography to enforce privacy thus individual freedom. Crypto-anarchists goal is to create encrypted virtual communities where everyone is absolutely anonymous or pseudonymous.

Feminist anarchism

These anarchists believe that patriarchy is a fundamental issue in society. Also known as Anarcho-feminism, it views patriarchy as the first manifestation of hierarchy in human history, thus the first form of oppression occurred in the dominance of male over female.

Anarcho-capitalism

Anarcho-capitalists advocate the elimination of the state and the rise of the individual in a free market. Some anarcho-capitalists prefer that in such a society, law enforcement, courts, any formerly state-provided institutions or services that consumers demanded would be provided by voluntarily funded and/ or formed organizations with defense and security being provided by private defense agencies or communal militias rather than through taxation, and where money is privately produced in an open market. On the other hand, other anarcho-capitalists claim that no state is morally justified, and that the traditional functions of the state ought to be provided by the voluntary interactions among people. Many anarcho-capitalists view the hyphenations as describing the means by which anarchists seek to attain anarchy; that is to say that no man owns any other man. It can be more properly described as anarchists and capitalists. For example, some refuse business with companies that are monopolistic or that are developing into a monopoly, and others also refuse trade with those that do not divest somewhat or release debtors after time, regardless of how much was owed.

Anarcho-tribalism

A type of anarchist ideology and social system where there is little or no central government and the individuals form voluntary associations with each other so as to form self-governign tribes.

National-Anarchism

National-Anarchists seek to establish autonomous villages for communities and other forms new tribes, which have seceded from the state`s economy and are no-go areas for unwelcomed groups and state authorities. Although this term has been emphasized on ethnicity and has been labelled as being in relation to white supremacy, or Nazi groups, National-Anarchists have recently put the focus on creating communities from other types of common lifestyles and goals such as locality, religion, subculture, ideology, sexual orientation and even occupation, not just on the basis of ethnicity, thus virtually changing the meaning of the term “National-Anarchism.“ It really is no different than the First Nations peoples, and the several different nations they have built.

Eco-anarchism

This type argues that small eco-villages are a scale of people living preferable to civilization, and that infrastructure and political systems should be re-organized to ensure that these are created. Eco-anarchists state that social organizations must be designed to work with natural forces, rather than against.

Egoist-anarchism

Also known as egoist communism, it is an individualist thought of anarchism, historically associated with the individualist and communist.

Post-anarchism

Also known as post-structuralist anarchism, is a term used to represent anarchist philosophies developed before the 19th century, using post-structuralist and post-modernist approaches. It is not a single coherent theory, but rather is different for each thinker who utilizes the differently combined works of any number of post-structralists, and post-marxists, those of classical anarchists with particular concentration on feminism, egoistical and individualist anarchism, as well as it draws from a wide range of ideas including autonomism, post-left anarchy, situationism, post-colonialism and Zapatismo ( the Zapatista movement synthesized on traditional Mayan practices with elements of libertarian socialism, anarchism and Marxism. Their slogan is in harmony with the concept of mutual aid : Para todos todo, para nosotros nada – For everyone, everything. For us, nothing.)

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